1. National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2012: With Special Feature on Emergency Care. Hyattsville, MD: 2013.
  2. Roberts DC, McKay MP, Shaffer A. Increasing rates of emergency department visits for elderly patients in the United States, 1993 to 2003. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2008;51(6):769-774.
  3. Morganti Gonzalez K, Bauhoff S, Blanchard JC, Abir M, et al. (2013). Research Report: The evolving role of emergency departments in the United States. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2013.
  4. Institute of Medicine. The Future of Emergency Care in the U.S. Health System. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, June 2006.
  5. Singer, AJ, Thode, HC Jr, Viccellio, P, Pines JM. The association between length of emergency department boarding and mortality. Acad Emerg Med. 2011;18(12):1324-1329.
  6. McCarthy ML, Zeger SL, Ding R, Levin SR, Desmond JS, Lee J, Aronsky D. Crowding delays treatment and lengthens emergency department length of stay, even among high-acuity patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2009;54(4):492-503.
  7. Pines JM, Russell Localio A, Hollander JE. Racial disparities in emergency department length of stay for admitted patients in the United States. Acad Emerg Med. 2009: 16(5): 403-10.
  8. SAMHSA Drug Abuse Warning Network Report, February 23, 2013.
  9. SAMHSA. Drug Abuse Warning Network: selected tables of national estimates of drug-related emergency department visits. Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, SAMHSA; 2010.
  10. Examination and treatment for emergency medical conditions and women in labor, Social Security Act Sec. 1867 [42 U.S.C. 1395dd] (1986).
  11. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. Addressing the New Health Care Crisis: Reforming the Medical Litigation System to Improve the Quality of Health Care. Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. March 3, 2003.
  12. Mello MM, Chandra A, Gawande AA, Studdert DM. National Costs of the Medical Liability System. Health Aff. 2010; 29(9):1569-1577.
  13. Based on analyses of Medical Liability Monitor, Rate Survey Issue. October 2012, 37 (10): 45pp.
  14. O’Malley AS, Draper DA, Felland LD. Hospital Emergency On-Call Coverage: Is There a Doctor in the House? Center for Studying Health System Change, Issue Brief No. 115, November 2007.
  15. Jena AB, Seabury S, Lakdawalla D, Chandra A. Malpractice Risk According to Physician Specialty. NEJM. 2011; 365(7):629-636
  16. Seabury SA, Chandra A, Lakdawalla DN, Jena AB. On Average, Physicians Spend Nearly 11 Percent of their 40-Year Career with an Open, Unresolved Malpractice Claim. Health Aff. 2013; 32(1):111-119.
  17. American College of Emergency Physicians. On Call Specialist Coverage in US Emergency Departments, Irving, TX. April 2006.
  18. National Council of State Legislators (NCSL). Medical Liability/Malpractice 2011 and 2012 Legislation. Washington, DC: NCSL; 2013.
  19. Danaei G, Ding EL, Mosaffarian D, Taylor B, Rehm J, Murray CJL, Ezzati M. The Preventable Causes of Death in the United States: Comparative Risk Assessment of Dietary, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors. PLoS Med. 2009; 6(4): e10000058.
  20. Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA. 2004;291:1238–1245.

Share This Info

Contact Congress

Take federal action and get your national officials involved

Public ACEP Members